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In the late 19th century, Jerusalemites combined caramelized sugar and black pepper in a noodle kugel known as "Yerushalmi kugel" or "Jerusalem kugel," Hebrew: It is made with or without cheese, but it most always includes raisins.
Savory kugel may be based on potatoes, matzah , cabbage , carrots , zucchini , spinach or cheese. A similar traditional Belarusian dish is potato babka.
In Lithuania , this dish is called Kugelis. It is baked potato pudding and it is a traditional Lithuanian dish.
The main ingredients are potatoes , onions , and eggs. Kugels are a mainstay of festive meals in Ashkenazi Jewish homes, particularly on the Jewish Sabbath and other Jewish holidays or at a Tish.
Some Hasidic Jews believe that eating kugel on the Jewish Sabbath brings special spiritual blessings, particularly if that kugel was served on the table of a Hasidic Rebbe.
While noodle kugel, potato kugel, and other variations are dishes served on Jewish holiday meals, matzo kugel is a common alternative served at Passover seders which is adjusted to meet passover kosher requirements.
Among South African Jews , the word "kugel" was used by the elder generation as a term for a young Jewish woman who forsook traditional Jewish dress values in favor of those of the ostentatiously wealthy, becoming overly materialistic and over groomed, the kugel being a plain pudding garnished as a delicacy.
The women thus described made light of the term and it has since become an amusing rather than derogatory slang term in South African English , referring to a materialistic young woman.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Kugel disambiguation. Funny essays about digital nudniks, seder selfies and chicken soup memories," Incompra Press, ; p.
Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on May 4, Retrieved July 2, The mice which were nursed by the treated females were protected from the poison, providing the proof that antibodies can also be conveyed in milk.
Emil Behring had worked at the Berlin Institute of Infectious Diseases until on developing an antiserum for treating diphtheria and tetanus but with inconsistent results.
Koch suggested that Behring and Ehrlich cooperate on the project. This joint work was successful to the extent that Ehrlich was quickly able to increase the level of immunity of the laboratory animals based on his experience with mice.
Their contract was changed several times and finally Ehrlich was eventually pressured into accepting a profit share of only eight percent.
Ehrlich resented what he considered as unfair treatment, and his relationship with Behring was thereafter problematic, a situation which later escalated over the issue of the valency  of tetanus serum.
Ehrlich recognized that the principle of serum therapy had been developed by Behring and Kitasato. But he was of the opinion that he had been the first to develop a serum which could also be used on humans, and that his role in developing the diphtheria serum had been insufficiently acknowledged.
Behring, for his part, schemed against Ehrlich at the Prussian Ministry of Culture, and from on Ehrlich refused to collaborate with him.
Since antiserums were an entirely new type of medicine whose quality was highly variable, a government system was established to guarantee their safety and effectiveness.
Beginning 1 April , only government-approved serum could be sold in the German Reich. The testing station for diphtheria serum was provisionally housed at the Institute of Infectious Diseases.
In this function and as honorary professor at Berliner University he had annual earnings of 6, marks, approximately the salary of a university professor.
In addition to a testing department the institute also had a research department. In order to determine the effectiveness of diphtheria antiserum, a stable concentration of diphtheria toxin was required.
Ehrlich discovered that the toxin being used was perishable, in contrast to what had been assumed, which for him led to two consequences: He did not use the toxin as a standard, but instead a serum powder developed by Behring, which had to be dissolved in liquid shortly before use.
The strength of a test toxin was first determined in comparison with this standard. The test toxin could then be used as a reference for testing other serums.
For the test itself, toxin and serum were mixed in a ratio so that their effects just cancelled each other when injected into a guinea pig. But since there was a large margin in determining whether symptoms of illness were present, Ehrlich established an unambiguous target: The mixture was to be such that the test animal would die after four days.
If it died earlier, the serum was too weak and was rejected. Ehrlich claimed to have made the determination of the valency of serum as accurate as it would be with chemical titration.
This again demonstrates his tendency to quantify the life sciences. The German quality-control methodology was copied by government serum institutes all over the world, and they also obtained the standard serum from Frankfurt.
After diphtheria antiserum, tetanus serum and various bactericide serums for use in veterinary medicine were developed in rapid sequence.
These were also evaluated at the institute, as was tuberculin and later on various vaccines. If the organism survives the effects of the toxin, the blocked side-chains are replaced by new ones.
This regeneration can be trained, the name for this phenomenon being immunization. If the cell produces a surplus of side chains, these might also be released into the blood as antibodies.
Metchnikoff, who had researched the cellular branch of immunity, Phagocytosis , at the Pasteur Institute had previously sharply attacked Ehrlich.
In , the Prussian Ministry of Finance criticized Ehrlich for exceeding his budget and as a consequence reduced his income. In this situation Althoff arranged a contact with Georg Speyer, a Jewish philanthropist and joint owner of the bank house Lazard Speyer-Ellissen.
The cancerous disease of Princess Victoria , the widow of the German Emperor Friedrich II, had received much public attention and prompted a collection among wealthy Frankfurt citizens, including Speyer, in support of cancer research.
Ehrlich had also received from the German Emperor Wilhelm II a personal request to devote all his energy to cancer research. Such efforts led to the founding of a department for cancer research affiliated with the Institute of Experimental Therapy.
The chemist Gustav Embden , among others, worked there. Ehrlich informed his sponsors that cancer research meant basic research, and that a cure could not be expected soon.
Among the results achieved by Ehrlich and his research colleagues was the insight that when tumors are cultivated by transplanting tumor cells, their malignancy increases from generation to generation.
If the primary tumor is removed, then metastasis precipitously increases. Ehrlich applied bacteriological methods to cancer research. In analogy to vaccination, he attempted to generate immunity to cancer by injecting weakened cancer cells.
Both in cancer research and chemotherapy research see below he introduced the methodologies of Big Science. In it he introduced the new technology of in vivo staining.
One of his findings was that pigments can only be easily assimilated by living organisms if they are in granular form. He injected the dyes alizarin blue and indophenol blue into laboratory animals and established after their death that various organs had been colored to different degrees.
In organs with high oxygen saturation, indophenol was retained; in organs with medium saturation, indophenol was reduced, but not alizarin blue.
And in areas with low oxygen saturation, both pigments were reduced. With this work, Ehrlich also formulated the conviction which guided his research: In the course of his investigations Ehrlich came across methylene blue , which he regarded as particularly suitable for staining bacteria.
Later, Robert Koch also used methylene blue as a dye in his research on the tuberculosis pathogen. He initiated a doctoral dissertation on the subject, but did not follow up the topic himself.
It was the opinion of the neurologist Ludwig Edinger that Ehrlich had thereby opened up a major new topic in the field of neurology. After mid, when Ehrlich was unemployed, he privately continued his research on methylene blue.
His work on in vivo staining gave him the idea of using it therapeutically. Since the parasite family of Plasmodiidae — which includes the malaria pathogen — can be stained with methylene blue, he thought it could possibly be used in the treatment of malaria.
In the case of two patients so treated at the city hospital in Berlin-Moabit, their fever indeed subsided and the malaria plasmodia disappeared from their blood.
Before the Institute of Experimental Therapy had moved to Frankfurt, Ehrlich had already resumed work on methylene blue. As director of the Georg-Speyer House, Ehrlich transferred his chemotherapeutic research there.
He was looking for an agent which was as effective as methylene blue, but without its side effects. His model was on the one hand the impact of quinine on malaria, and on the other hand, in analogy to serum therapy, he thought there must also be chemical pharmaceuticals which would have just as specific an effect on individual diseases.
His goal was to find a "Therapia sterilisans magna," in other words a treatment that could kill all disease pathogens. As a model for experimental therapy Ehrlich used a guinea pig disease trypanosoma and tested out various chemical substances on laboratory animals.
The trypanosomes could indeed be successfully killed with the dye trypan red. Ehrlich elaborated the systematic testing of chemical compounds in the sense of screening as now practiced in the pharmaceutical industry.
He discovered that Compound - Arsenophenylglycine - had an impressive therapeutic effect and had it tested in Africa.
With the support of his assistant Sahachiro Hata Ehrlich discovered in that Compound , Arsphenamine , effectively combatted " spirillum " spirochaetes bacteria, one of whose subspecies causes syphilis.
After extensive clinical testing all the research participants had the negative example of tuberculin in mind the Hoechst company began to market the compound toward the end of under the name Salvarsan.
This was the first agent with a specific therapeutic effect to be created on the basis of theoretical considerations. Salvarsan proved to be amazingly effective, particularly when compared with the conventional therapy of mercury salts.
Manufactured by Hoechst AG, Salvarsan became the most widely prescribed drug in the world. It was the most effective drug for treating syphilis until penicillin became available in the s.
The medication triggered the so-called "Salvarsan war. Ehrlich was also accused, with clearly anti-Semitic undertones, of excessively enriching himself.
Because some people died during the clinical testing, Ehrlich was accused of "stopping at nothing. Though Ehrlich was thereby exonerated, the ordeal threw him into a depression from which he never fully recovered.
Ehrlich reasoned that if a compound could be made that selectively targeted a disease-causing organism, then a toxin for that organism could be delivered along with the agent of selectivity.
Hence, a "magic bullet" magische Kugel , his term for an ideal therapeutic agent would be created that killed only the organism targeted.
The concept of a "magic bullet" has to some extent been realized by the development of antibody-drug conjugates a monoclonal antibody linked to a cytotoxic biologically active drug , as they enable cytotoxic drugs to be selectively delivered to their designated targets e.
In , a street was named after Ehrlich in Frankfurt-Sachsenhausen. Shortly after the end of the war the name Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse was reinstated, and today numerous German cities have streets named after Paul Ehrlich.
West Germany issued a postage stamp in on the th anniversary of the births of Paul Ehrlich 14 March and Emil von Behring 15 March Schwerin Human Rights Prize.
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