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By my work the French language has been brought into the world. I have my victories! Outraged by the acquittal of Esterhazy, Zola decided to strike a blow.

With a typical circulation of 30,, the newspaper distributed nearly , copies that day. This article had the effect of an explosion. The article was a direct attack, explicit and clear, and named names.

It denounced all those who had conspired against Dreyfus, including the minister of war and the General Staff. The article contained numerous errors, exaggerating or minimizing the roles of one or another of the figures involved.

His trial forced a new public review of both the Dreyfus and Esterhazy affairs. Here he went against the strategy of Scheurer-Kestner and Lazare, who advocated patience and reflection.

From that critical moment the case followed two parallel paths. On one hand, the state used its apparatus to impose a limitation on the trial, restricting it to one of simple libel so as to separate the Dreyfus and Esterhazy cases, which had already been adjudicated.

On the other hand, conflicting camps of opinion tried to influence judges and the government—one side pushed to obtain a review and the other to convict Zola.

But Zola achieved his aim: On 15 January Le Temps published a petition calling for a retrial. On 20 January , after an anti-Zola speech by rightist politician Albert de Mun at the Chamber of Deputies , the chamber voted —22 to prosecute Zola.

On 1 February Barres lambasted the intellectuals in Le Journal. The taxpayer is at risk in the first case, while only the plaintiff is at risk in the second.

He accused Zola of having written that the court martial had committed "unlawful acts [ The details of the Dreyfus Affair, unknown to most of the public, were published in the press.

Several papers [Note 31] published shorthand notes verbatim of the debates every day to build support in the population. These notes were, for the Dreyfusards, an essential tool for later debates.

The nationalists, behind Henri Rochefort , however, were more visible and organized riots, which forced the prefect of police to intervene to protect Zola whenever he left the facility [] after every hearing.

This trial was also the scene of a real legal battle in which the rights of the defence were constantly violated. Evidently the court received instructions not to raise the subject of former judicial errors.

President Delegorgue, on the pretext of the long duration of the hearings, juggled the law incessantly to ensure that the trial dealt only with the alleged defamation by Zola.

Zola was sentenced to one year in prison and a fine of 3, francs, [Note 32] which was the maximum penalty. This harshness was due to the atmosphere of violence surrounding the trial.

In addition, the violent attacks against Zola and the injustice of the conviction of Dreyfus reinforced the commitment of the Dreyfusards. I declare that Justice is the most beautiful word in the language of men and I must cry if men no longer understand it".

Even more than the Dreyfus Affair the Zola affair resulted in a regrouping of intellectual forces into two opposing camps.

On 2 April an application to the Supreme Court received a favourable response. The military court made the complaint, rather than the minister.

Prosecutor-General Manau supported a review of the Dreyfus trial and strongly opposed the anti-Semites. The judges of the military court, whom Zola had challenged, sued him for libel.

The case was brought before the Assizes of Seine-et-Oise in Versailles where the public was considered more favourable to the army and more nationalistic.

On 23 May , at the first hearing, Mr. Labori appealed to the Supreme Court regarding the change of jurisdiction, which adjourned the trial and postponed the hearing to 18 July Labori advised Zola to leave France for England before the end of the trial, which the writer did, departing for a one-year exile in England.

The defendants were convicted again. As for Colonel Picquart, he found himself again in prison. Anti-Semitism made considerable progress and riots were common throughout the year However politicians were still in denial about the affair.

Nevertheless the cause of the Dreyfusards was restarted. Godefroy Cavaignac , the new minister of war and a fierce supporter of anti-revisionism, definitely wanted to prove the guilt of Dreyfus and from there "wring the neck" of Esterhazy, whom he considered "a pathological liar and blackmailer".

He was surprised to learn that all the documents on which the prosecution was based had not been expertly appraised and that Boisdeffre had "absolute confidence" in Henry.

Cavaignac decided to investigate—in his office, with his assistants—and retrieved the secret file, which now contained items. The secret information had been provided by Zola, who had received it from Oscar Wilde ; Wilde had gained it from best friend Carlos Blacker, who was an intimate friend of Alexandro Panizzardi.

On 7 July during a questioning in the House, Cavaignac reported three items "overwhelming among a thousand", two of which had no connection with the case.

The other was the "faux Henry". The application for annulment made by Lucie Dreyfus became admissible. The next day, Picquart declared in Le Temps to the council president, "I am in a position to establish before a court of competent jurisdiction that the two documents bearing the date of could not be attributed to Dreyfus and that the one that bears the date of had all the characteristics of a fake," which earned him eleven months in prison.

On the evening of 13 August , Cuignet, who was attached to the cabinet of Cavaignac, was working by the light of a lamp and observed that the colour of the lines on the "faux Henry" paper header and footer did not correspond with the central part of the document.

Cavaignac was still trying to find logical reasons for the guilt and conviction of Dreyfus [] but was not silent on this discovery.

Collusion between the General Staff and the traitor was revealed. On 30 August Cavaignac resigned himself to demanding explanations from Colonel Henry in the presence of Boisdeffre and Gonse.

After an hour of questioning by the minister himself, Henry broke down and made a full confession. The request for review filed by Lucie Dreyfus could not be rejected.

Yet Cavaignac said "less than ever! Despite his apparently entirely involuntary role in the revision of the trial, Brisson remained convinced that Dreyfus was guilty and made a statement disparaging and offensive to Dreyfus at the Rennes trial.

The anti-revisionists did not consider themselves beaten. On 6 September Charles Maurras published a eulogy of Henry in La Gazette de France in which he called him a "heroic servant of the great interests of the State".

In December the same newspaper launched a subscription, in favour of his widow, to erect a monument to Henry. Each gift was accompanied by pithy, often abusive, remarks on Dreyfus and the Dreyfusards.

Some 14, subscribers, [] including 53 MPs, sent , francs. The government transferred the case to the Supreme Court for its opinion on the past four years of proceedings.

France was really divided into two, but no more generalization is possible: Henry was dead, Boisdeffre had resigned, Gonse had no more authority, and du Paty had been severely compromised by Esterhazy: Cavaignac, having resigned for continuing to spread his anti-Dreyfusard vision of the Affair, arose as an anti-revisionist leader.

General Zurlinden who succeeded him and was influenced by the General Staff, delivered a negative opinion at the review on 10 September comforting the extremist press by saying that, "a review means war".

The obstinacy of the Government, who voted to revert to the Supreme Court on 26 September , led to the resignation of Zurlinden who was soon replaced by General Chanoine.

Ministerial instability caused some governmental instability. In he had covered the actions of General Mercier at the beginning of the Dreyfus Affair, [] and four years later he announced that he would follow the judgment of the Supreme Court, [] thus blocking the road for those who wanted to stifle the review and divest the Court.

On 5 December in the shadow of a debate in the House on the transmission of the "secret file" to the Supreme Court the tension rose another notch.

Insults, invective, and other nationalistic violence gave way to threats of an uprising. A new crisis arose at the same time in the heart of the Supreme Court, since Quesnay de Beaurepaire, President of the Civil Chamber, accused the Criminal Chamber of Dreyfusism in the press.

He resigned on 8 January as a hero of the nationalist cause. This crisis led to the divestiture of the Criminal Division in favour of joint chambers.

This was the point of blockage for the review. In the affair took up more and more of the political scene. It was a failure as it was not supported by the military.

On 4 June Loubet was assaulted at the Longchamp Racecourse. These provocations plus permanent demonstrations from the extreme right, although it never actually put the Republic in danger, created a burst of Republicanism leading to the formation of a "government of republican defence" around Waldeck-Rousseau on 22 June The Dreyfus affair led to a clear reorganization of the French political landscape.

The Supreme Court considered the affair in the context of press campaigns against the Criminal Division , the magistrates being constantly dragged through the mud in nationalist newspapers from the Panama scandals.

On 29 October , after the submission of the report from the recorder Alphonse Bard, the Criminal Chamber of the Court stated that "the application is admissible and will proceed with a supplementary investigation".

The recorder Louis Loew presided. He was subjected to a very violent campaign of antisemitic insults due to his being an Alsatian Protestant accused of being a deserter and tainted by the Prussians.

Despite the compliant silence of Mercier, Billot, Zurlinden, and Roget, who hid behind the authority of "already judged" and "state secret", understanding of the affair increased.

Cavaignac made a statement two days long, but failed to prove the guilt of Dreyfus. On the contrary, he unwittingly exonerated him by a demonstration of the exact date of the bordereau August Picquart then demonstrated all the workings of the error, then the conspiracy.

On 9 February , the Criminal Division submitted its report by highlighting two important facts: These two major events alone destroyed all proceedings against Alfred Dreyfus.

In parallel, President Mazeau conducted an inquiry by the Criminal Division, which led to divestiture thereof "to not only leave it to bear alone all responsibility for the final decision," so protecting the Criminal Division from actions arising from its report.

On 28 February , Waldeck-Rousseau spoke to the Senate on the floor and denounced "moral conspiracy" within the government and in the street. The review was no longer avoidable.

He took on the legal files and decided on a further investigation. Ten additional witnesses were interviewed, which further weakened the version of the General Staff.

The prosecutor Manau echoed the views of the President. Mornard who represented Lucie Dreyfus argued without any difficulty or opposition from the prosecution.

On 3 June , the joint chambers of the Supreme Court overturned the judgment of in a formal hearing. By that judgment, the Supreme Court imposed itself as an absolute authority capable of standing up to military and political power.

The court, in overturning the judgement, believed in the legal autonomy of the military court without taking into account the laws of esprit de corps.

Alfred Dreyfus was in no way aware of what was happening thousands of kilometres from him. Neither was he aware of the schemes hatched that he could never return, or the commitment of countless men and women to his cause.

The prison administration filtered information deemed confidential. At the end of , he learned with astonishment the actual size of the affair, about which he knew nothing: He disembarked on 30 June in Port Haliguen on the Quiberon peninsula in the greatest secrecy, "a clandestine and nocturnal return".

He was remanded on 7 August before the military court of the Breton capital. General Mercier, champion of the anti-Dreyfusards, intervened constantly in the press to confirm the accuracy of the first judgement: Dreyfus was surely guilty.

Immediately, however, dissent emerged in the defence of Dreyfus. His two lawyers actually had opposing strategies. Demange wanted to stand on the defensive and just get the acquittal of Dreyfus.

Labori, a brilliant lawyer who was just 35 years old, wanted to take the offensive, to aim higher and defeat and publicly humiliate the General Staff.

Mathieu Dreyfus imagined a complementarity between the two lawyers. The conduct of the trial revealed the disunity that served the prosecution with a defence so impaired.

The trial opened on 7 August in an atmosphere of extreme tension. Rennes was in a state of siege. He and du Paty were both excused.

On the appearance of Dreyfus, emotions ran high. His physical appearance disturbed his supporters and some of his opponents. They stubbornly considered null and void the confessions of Henry and Esterhazy.

The trial even tended to go out of control to the extent that the decisions of the Supreme Court were not taken into account.

They discussed in particular the bordereau, which was the proof of guilt of Esterhazy. Nevertheless Mercier was booed at the end of the hearing.

The nationalist press and the anti-Dreyfusards could only speculate on his silence about the "conclusive evidence" the pseudo-note annotated by the Kaiser, which nobody will ever see in evidence that he had not ceased to report before the trial.

On 14 August Labori was on his way to court when he was shot in the back by an extremist who escaped and was never found. The lawyer was missing from discussions for over a week at the decisive moment of the examination of witnesses.

On 22 August his condition had improved and he returned. Incidents between the two lawyers for Dreyfus multiplied. Labori reproached Demange about his excessive caution.

The Government, in the face of the military hardening stance, still had two ways to influence events: The German Embassy sent a polite refusal to the government.

He asked him to act in the spirit of the revised judgment of the Supreme Court. The officer pretended not to understand the allusion and helped the nationalist lawyer Auffray to make the indictment against Dreyfus.

The defence needed to make a decision because the outcome of the case looked bad, despite evidence of the absence of charges against the accused.

They decided to risk conciliation in exchange for the acquittal that seemed to be promised by the government.

Demange, alone and without illusions, continued the defence of Dreyfus in an atmosphere of civil war. In Paris the anti-Semitic and nationalist agitators of Auteuil were arrested.

On 9 September the court rendered its verdict: Contrary to appearances, this verdict was on the verge of acquittal by one vote.

The Code of Military Justice adopted the principle that a minority vote of three against four was an acquittal. The day after the verdict, Alfred Dreyfus, after much hesitation, filed an appeal for a retrial.

Waldeck-Rousseau, in a difficult position, tackled for the first time the possibility of a pardon. Dreyfus had to accept guilt. Exhausted, having been away from his family for too long, he accepted.

The decree was signed on 19 September and he was released on 21 September Many Dreyfusards were frustrated by this final act. Public opinion welcomed this conclusion indifferently.

France wanted civil peace and harmony on the eve of the Universal Exhibition of and before the big fight that the Republic was about to take for freedom of association and secularism.

It was in this spirit that on 17 November Waldeck-Rousseau filed an amnesty law covering "all criminal acts or misdemeanours related to the Dreyfus affair or that have been included in a prosecution for one of these acts" excluding only Alfred Dreyfus himself who was instead pardoned to be able to still seek acquittal.

Many Dreyfusards protested as this indemnified not only Zola and Picquart against further punishment but also protected the real culprits. Despite these massive protests the bill was passed.

Reactions in France were strong, consisting of "shock and sadness" in the revisionist camp. The Republicans sought above all social peace and to turn the page on this extremely long and controversial affair.

Also there were very few demonstrations in the provinces while agitation persisted somewhat in Paris. Two of the seven judges voted for acquittal. This was also clearly seen.

In an apostrophe for the army, Galliffet announced: Anti-French demonstrations took place in twenty foreign capitals and the press was outraged.

Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg cancelled his concerts in France in protest. The English judge, who went as an observer to Rennes, criticised the weaknesses of the Military Court:.

The Military judges were not familiar with the law or criminal proceedings. They lacked the experience and skill that can see the evidence behind the evidence.

They were drowning in prejudice and they acted according to what they saw as the honour of the army. Impressed, full of respect for their superiors, they accorded too much importance to fragile allegations that were only made against the accused.

Dreyfus would now be a free man. In Germany and Italy , the two countries widely challenged by lawsuits against Dreyfus, there was relief.

Even if the Emperor of Germany regretted that the innocence of Dreyfus was not recognized the normalization of future Franco-German relations was seen as a welcome relaxation.

Diplomacy of the three powers with the help of England sought to relax in an atmosphere that deteriorated again on the eve of the First World War.

This judicial conclusion also had an unfortunate consequence for the relationship between the Dreyfus family and the branch of ultra dreyfusists.

Fernand Labori, Jaures, and Clemenceau, with the consent of Picquart openly accused Alfred Dreyfus of accepting the pardon and only gently protesting the amnesty law.

Dreyfus was not found innocent. The rehabilitation process was not completed until six years later without sparkle or passion.

Many books appeared during this period. As for Zola he wrote the third of his Gospels: Even Esterhazy took advantage of his secrets and sold several different versions of the text of his statement to the consul of France.

On 29 September Zola, who was the initiator of The Affair and the first of the intellectual Dreyfusards, died, asphyxiated by fumes from his chimney.

His wife, Alexandrine, narrowly escaped. Before recalling the struggle undertaken by Zola for justice and truth is it possible for me to keep silent about those men bent on the destruction of an innocent man and who, after feeling lost, was saved and overwhelmed with the desperate audacity of fear?

How to depart from your sight then I have a duty to show you Zola rises up weak and disarmed against them? Can I hide their lies? It would silence his heroic righteousness.

Can I hide their crimes? That would conceal his virtue. Can I silence the insults and calumnies which they have pursued?

It would silence his reward and honours. Can I hide their shame? It would silence his glory. No, I will speak. Envy him, his destiny and his heart gave out the greatest.

It was a moment of human conscience. In , the newspaper Liberation published a death-bed confession by a Parisian roofer that he had murdered Zola by blocking the chimney of his house.

The elections of saw the victory of the left. Legally, it formed an admission of the collusion of the General Staff,. For my side I can not trust any of my chiefs who have been working on falsehoods , I ask for my retirement.

The investigation was conducted by Captain Antoine Louis Targe, aide to the minister. During searches of the Statistics Section he discovered numerous documents, most of which were obviously fabricated.

This was in compliance with the regulations since the Minister found an error committed by the Military Court. This was the beginning of a new review led by lawyer Ludovic Trarieux , the founder of the League of Human Rights, with a thorough investigation to run over two years.

The years and were devoted to different legal phases before the Supreme Court. The court identified three events grounds for review, the demonstration of the falsification of the Panizzardi telegram, demonstration of a date change on a document in the trial April changed to April and demonstration of the fact that Dreyfus had not removed the minutes related to heavy artillery in the army.

In regard to the writing of the bordereau the court was particularly severe against Alphonse Bertillon who "reasoned badly on forged documents".

The report [Note 37] showed that the writing was certainly by Esterhazy and that the latter had also confessed subsequently.

Finally the Court demonstrated by a comprehensive and skilled analysis of the bordereau the futility of this purely intellectual construction and a commission of four headed by a general of artillery, General Sebert, maintained "it is highly unlikely that an artillery officer could write this missive".

On 9 March Attorney-General Baudouin delivered an page report in which he demanded the convictions be quashed without further reference to another court and denounced the army.

He began a divestiture of the military justice system, which did not conclude until The anti-Dreyfusards protested at this hasty rehabilitation.

The goal was obviously political: Nothing could dent the conviction of the opponents of Dreyfus. This method was the most direct and most definitive.

What was annulled not only put a stop to Rennes, but the entire chain of prior acts, beginning with the arraignment order given by General Saussier in The Court focused on the legal aspects only and observed that Dreyfus did not have a duty to be returned before a Military Court for the simple reason that it should never have taken place due to the total absence of charges:.

Whereas in the final analysis of the accusation against Dreyfus nothing remains standing and setting aside the judgment of the Military Court leaves nothing that can be considered to be a crime or misdemeanour; therefore by applying the final paragraph of Article no reference to another court should be pronounced.

Dreyfus was reinstated in the army with the rank of artillery major by law on 13 July This reflected the rank to which he could reasonably have been expected to have risen had his career not been interrupted by the false charges against him.

After serving for a year as commander of the artillery depot at Fort Neuf de Vincennes , Major Dreyfus retired in June ; a decision taken in part because of recurrent tropical fevers and chronic fatigue arising from the strain of his imprisonment.

It was an occasion for new antisemitic riots that the government suppressed half-heartedly. As a reserve officer Dreyfus participated in the First World War of —, serving as head of the artillery depot at a fortified camp near Paris and commander of a supply column.

In he saw frontline service at the Chemin des Dames and Verdun. Ironically, apart from Major Du Paty de Clam, Dreyfus was the only officer directly involved in the Affair to serve in the war.

The same artillery piece, the secrets of which Dreyfus was accused of revealing to the Germans, was used in blunting the early German offensives because of its ability to maintain accuracy during rapid fire.

He ended his military career as a colonel. Dreyfus died on 12 July at the age of seventy-five years. Colonel Picquart was also officially rehabilitated and reintegrated into the army with the rank of Brigadier general.

He was Minister of War from to in the first Clemenceau government. He died in January in a riding accident. For some the Dreyfus affair marked French society as a tortured society.

All sections of society were affected; some were devastated. The enduring significance of the Dreyfus Affair It shows how longstanding beliefs and tensions can be transformed In the interest of increasing our understanding The Affair brought the confrontation between two sides of France to life.

There was indeed a strengthening of parliamentary democracy and a failure of monarchist and reactionary forces. The excessive violence of the nationalist parties brought together Republicans in a united front, which defeated attempts to return to the old order.

The shock trials of Esterhazy and Zola created a dreyfusian politics whose aim was to develop a Republican consciousness and to fight against authoritarian nationalism, which expressed itself during the Affair.

For the uninhibited growth of populist nationalism was another major result of the event in French politics even though it did not originate from the Dreyfus affair.

On that occasion many Republicans rallied to Vichy, without which the operation of the State would have been precarious, which showed the fragility of the republican institution in extreme circumstances.

The other result was an intellectual mutation of socialism. The year saw the birth of two parties: In addition saw the birth of the Republican radical socialist Party, the first modern political party, [] conceived as an electoral machine of the Republican group.

It had a permanent structure and relied on networks of Dreyfusards. The creation of the French League for Human Rights was contemporaneous with the affair.

It was the hub of the intellectual left and extremely active at the beginning of the century, the conscience of the humanist left.

The final consequence on the political scene at the turn of the century saw a profound renewal of political personalities with the disappearance of great republican figures beginning with Auguste Scheurer-Kestner.

Those who at the end of the century could weigh heavily on the events of the affair had now disappeared giving way to new men whose ambition was to reform and correct the errors and injustices of the past.

Socially antisemitism was prominent. Existing prior to the Dreyfus affair it had expressed itself during the boulangisme affair and the Panama Canal scandal but was limited to an intellectual elite.

Antisemitism was from then on official and was exposed in numerous settings including the working classes. This antisemitism was reinforced by the crisis of the separation of church and state in , which probably led to its height in France.

Antisemitic actions were permitted on the advent of the Vichy regime , which allowed free and unrestrained expression of racial hatred.

At the end of the war the monstrosity of the Final Solution was known by all and even today the expression of antisemitism is revealed from time to time through declarations of nationalist parties, which are all the more startling that they have become rarities.

Another social consequence was the enhanced role of the press. For the first time it exerted an important influence on French political life.

The power of the press certainly brought politicians to action, an example of which was Mercier, who appeared to have pushed at the Dreyfus trial in to please La Libre Parole who attacked ferociously.

This being said the role of the press was limited by the size of circulation, influential in Paris but to a lesser extent nationwide. The shock of the Dreyfus Affair also affected the Zionist movement "which found fertile ground for its emergence".

The Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl appeared profoundly moved by the Dreyfus affair, which followed his debut as a correspondent for the Neue Freie Presse of Vienna and was present at the degradation of Dreyfus in Before the wave of antisemitism that accompanied the degradation Herzl was "convinced of the need to resolve the Jewish question", which became "an obsession for him".

In Der Judenstaat State of the Jews , he considered that:. Assimilation does not solve the problem because the Gentile world will not allow it as the Dreyfus affair has so clearly demonstrated The shock was much stronger having lived his youth in Austria , an antisemitic country, Herzl chose to live in France for the humanist image that it claimed was a shelter from extremist excess.

He had originally been a fanatic supporter for assimilation of Jews into European Gentile society. Herzl quickly took charge in leading the movement.

He organized on 29 August , the First Zionist Congress in Basel and is considered the "inventor of Zionism as a real political movement".

Were I to sum up the Basel Congress in a word — which I shall guard against pronouncing publicly — it would be this: At Basel I founded the Jewish State.

If I said this out loud today, I would be answered by universal laughter. Perhaps in five years, and certainly in fifty, everyone will recognize this.

The following year the state of Israel was established. Consequently, the Dreyfus Affair is seen as a turning point in Jewish history and as the beginning of the Zionist movement.

The Dreyfus affair also marked a turning point in the lives of many Jews from Western and Central Europe, as the pogroms of — had done for the Jews of Eastern Europe, as many Jews had believed that they were Frenchman first.

Yet Jews, despite the state-sanctioned efforts of the emancipation movement , were never truly accepted into society and were often deemed as aliens and outsiders, [] even when they showed extreme devotion by fighting courageously in the wars of their respective countries.

It was instead installed at Boulevard Raspail, No. Chirac stated that "the combat against the dark forces of intolerance and hate is never definitively won", and called Dreyfus "an exemplary officer" and a "patriot who passionately loved France".

The French National Assembly also held a memorial ceremony of the centennial marking the end of the Affair. This was held in remembrance of the laws that had reintegrated and promoted both Dreyfus and Picquart at the end of the Dreyfus affair.

The Dreyfus Affair is distinguished by the large number of books published on this subject. These works can however be consulted in the context of a study of psycho-social aspects of the Affair.

The great interest in the study of the Dreyfus affair lies in the fact that all records are readily available. Although the debates of the Military Court of were not taken in shorthand , the accounts of all public hearings of the many trials in the Affair can be consulted.

In addition, a large number of records are easily accessible in the French National Archives and in the Military Archives at the fort of Vincennes.

The contemporary literature of the case was published between and Beginning with the pamphlet of Bernard Lazare, the first intellectual Dreyfusard: The work of Joseph Reinach , The History of the Dreyfus Affair in seven volumes, which first appeared in and ended with the index in , was the reference for the publication of the scientific historical work delivered from It contains a wealth of accurate information despite some interpretations generally challenged on the why of the Affair.

On the other hand, there are "instant memoires" of direct witnesses like the antisemitic and dishonest book of Esterhazy, or those of Alfred Dreyfus himself in Five years of my life.

These are testaments to complete the panorama of the Affair. The precis of the Dreyfus Affair by "Henri-Dutrait Crozon", a pseudonym of Colonel Larpent, [Note 41] is the basis of all anti-Dreyfusard literature after the Affair to the present time.

The author develops the theory of conspiracy, fueled by Jewish finance, to push Esterhazy to accuse himself of crime.

Under a scientific exterior there will be found there an elaboration of theories without evidence or support. The extreme right questioned the value of this testimony but most historians hold it to be a valid source despite some ambiguities and inaccuracies.

The period of the Occupation throws a veil over the case. The Liberation and the revelation of the Holocaust brought a deep reflection on all of the Dreyfus Affair.

Marcel Thomas, chief curator at the National Archives, in provided through his The Affair without Dreyfus in two volumes a complete review of the history of the affair supported by all available public and private archives.

His work is the foundation of all subsequent historical studies. Doise proposes in A Secret well guarded. These hypotheses are regarded with skepticism.

The interest of the book focuses on a strictly factual relating of the story with documented facts and multifaceted reflection on the different aspects of the event.

The book also revealed for the first time the existence of homosexual correspondence in the prosecution case. Reflecting the intense interest in social history that gripped historians since the s and s, Eric Cahm wrote The Dreyfus Affair in French Society and Politics , an excellent analysis of the sociology of the Affair.

Their research enabled the original contents of the secret file to be established. Their thesis was that historians had neglected the correspondence of Schwartzkoppen and Panizzardi, and that homosexuality played a central role in the slandering of Dreyfus.

In addition the Dreyfus Affair provided the basis for many novels. You Must Remember This. Pre-Code Movies on YouTube Share this Rating Title: Her First Affaire 5.

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On 23 May , at the first hearing, Mr. Labori appealed to the Supreme Court regarding the change of jurisdiction, which adjourned the trial and postponed the hearing to 18 July Labori advised Zola to leave France for England before the end of the trial, which the writer did, departing for a one-year exile in England.

The defendants were convicted again. As for Colonel Picquart, he found himself again in prison. Anti-Semitism made considerable progress and riots were common throughout the year However politicians were still in denial about the affair.

Nevertheless the cause of the Dreyfusards was restarted. Godefroy Cavaignac , the new minister of war and a fierce supporter of anti-revisionism, definitely wanted to prove the guilt of Dreyfus and from there "wring the neck" of Esterhazy, whom he considered "a pathological liar and blackmailer".

He was surprised to learn that all the documents on which the prosecution was based had not been expertly appraised and that Boisdeffre had "absolute confidence" in Henry.

Cavaignac decided to investigate—in his office, with his assistants—and retrieved the secret file, which now contained items. The secret information had been provided by Zola, who had received it from Oscar Wilde ; Wilde had gained it from best friend Carlos Blacker, who was an intimate friend of Alexandro Panizzardi.

On 7 July during a questioning in the House, Cavaignac reported three items "overwhelming among a thousand", two of which had no connection with the case.

The other was the "faux Henry". The application for annulment made by Lucie Dreyfus became admissible. The next day, Picquart declared in Le Temps to the council president, "I am in a position to establish before a court of competent jurisdiction that the two documents bearing the date of could not be attributed to Dreyfus and that the one that bears the date of had all the characteristics of a fake," which earned him eleven months in prison.

On the evening of 13 August , Cuignet, who was attached to the cabinet of Cavaignac, was working by the light of a lamp and observed that the colour of the lines on the "faux Henry" paper header and footer did not correspond with the central part of the document.

Cavaignac was still trying to find logical reasons for the guilt and conviction of Dreyfus [] but was not silent on this discovery. Collusion between the General Staff and the traitor was revealed.

On 30 August Cavaignac resigned himself to demanding explanations from Colonel Henry in the presence of Boisdeffre and Gonse.

After an hour of questioning by the minister himself, Henry broke down and made a full confession. The request for review filed by Lucie Dreyfus could not be rejected.

Yet Cavaignac said "less than ever! Despite his apparently entirely involuntary role in the revision of the trial, Brisson remained convinced that Dreyfus was guilty and made a statement disparaging and offensive to Dreyfus at the Rennes trial.

The anti-revisionists did not consider themselves beaten. On 6 September Charles Maurras published a eulogy of Henry in La Gazette de France in which he called him a "heroic servant of the great interests of the State".

In December the same newspaper launched a subscription, in favour of his widow, to erect a monument to Henry.

Each gift was accompanied by pithy, often abusive, remarks on Dreyfus and the Dreyfusards. Some 14, subscribers, [] including 53 MPs, sent , francs.

The government transferred the case to the Supreme Court for its opinion on the past four years of proceedings. France was really divided into two, but no more generalization is possible: Henry was dead, Boisdeffre had resigned, Gonse had no more authority, and du Paty had been severely compromised by Esterhazy: Cavaignac, having resigned for continuing to spread his anti-Dreyfusard vision of the Affair, arose as an anti-revisionist leader.

General Zurlinden who succeeded him and was influenced by the General Staff, delivered a negative opinion at the review on 10 September comforting the extremist press by saying that, "a review means war".

The obstinacy of the Government, who voted to revert to the Supreme Court on 26 September , led to the resignation of Zurlinden who was soon replaced by General Chanoine.

Ministerial instability caused some governmental instability. In he had covered the actions of General Mercier at the beginning of the Dreyfus Affair, [] and four years later he announced that he would follow the judgment of the Supreme Court, [] thus blocking the road for those who wanted to stifle the review and divest the Court.

On 5 December in the shadow of a debate in the House on the transmission of the "secret file" to the Supreme Court the tension rose another notch.

Insults, invective, and other nationalistic violence gave way to threats of an uprising. A new crisis arose at the same time in the heart of the Supreme Court, since Quesnay de Beaurepaire, President of the Civil Chamber, accused the Criminal Chamber of Dreyfusism in the press.

He resigned on 8 January as a hero of the nationalist cause. This crisis led to the divestiture of the Criminal Division in favour of joint chambers.

This was the point of blockage for the review. In the affair took up more and more of the political scene. It was a failure as it was not supported by the military.

On 4 June Loubet was assaulted at the Longchamp Racecourse. These provocations plus permanent demonstrations from the extreme right, although it never actually put the Republic in danger, created a burst of Republicanism leading to the formation of a "government of republican defence" around Waldeck-Rousseau on 22 June The Dreyfus affair led to a clear reorganization of the French political landscape.

The Supreme Court considered the affair in the context of press campaigns against the Criminal Division , the magistrates being constantly dragged through the mud in nationalist newspapers from the Panama scandals.

On 29 October , after the submission of the report from the recorder Alphonse Bard, the Criminal Chamber of the Court stated that "the application is admissible and will proceed with a supplementary investigation".

The recorder Louis Loew presided. He was subjected to a very violent campaign of antisemitic insults due to his being an Alsatian Protestant accused of being a deserter and tainted by the Prussians.

Despite the compliant silence of Mercier, Billot, Zurlinden, and Roget, who hid behind the authority of "already judged" and "state secret", understanding of the affair increased.

Cavaignac made a statement two days long, but failed to prove the guilt of Dreyfus. On the contrary, he unwittingly exonerated him by a demonstration of the exact date of the bordereau August Picquart then demonstrated all the workings of the error, then the conspiracy.

On 9 February , the Criminal Division submitted its report by highlighting two important facts: These two major events alone destroyed all proceedings against Alfred Dreyfus.

In parallel, President Mazeau conducted an inquiry by the Criminal Division, which led to divestiture thereof "to not only leave it to bear alone all responsibility for the final decision," so protecting the Criminal Division from actions arising from its report.

On 28 February , Waldeck-Rousseau spoke to the Senate on the floor and denounced "moral conspiracy" within the government and in the street.

The review was no longer avoidable. He took on the legal files and decided on a further investigation. Ten additional witnesses were interviewed, which further weakened the version of the General Staff.

The prosecutor Manau echoed the views of the President. Mornard who represented Lucie Dreyfus argued without any difficulty or opposition from the prosecution.

On 3 June , the joint chambers of the Supreme Court overturned the judgment of in a formal hearing. By that judgment, the Supreme Court imposed itself as an absolute authority capable of standing up to military and political power.

The court, in overturning the judgement, believed in the legal autonomy of the military court without taking into account the laws of esprit de corps.

Alfred Dreyfus was in no way aware of what was happening thousands of kilometres from him. Neither was he aware of the schemes hatched that he could never return, or the commitment of countless men and women to his cause.

The prison administration filtered information deemed confidential. At the end of , he learned with astonishment the actual size of the affair, about which he knew nothing: He disembarked on 30 June in Port Haliguen on the Quiberon peninsula in the greatest secrecy, "a clandestine and nocturnal return".

He was remanded on 7 August before the military court of the Breton capital. General Mercier, champion of the anti-Dreyfusards, intervened constantly in the press to confirm the accuracy of the first judgement: Dreyfus was surely guilty.

Immediately, however, dissent emerged in the defence of Dreyfus. His two lawyers actually had opposing strategies. Demange wanted to stand on the defensive and just get the acquittal of Dreyfus.

Labori, a brilliant lawyer who was just 35 years old, wanted to take the offensive, to aim higher and defeat and publicly humiliate the General Staff.

Mathieu Dreyfus imagined a complementarity between the two lawyers. The conduct of the trial revealed the disunity that served the prosecution with a defence so impaired.

The trial opened on 7 August in an atmosphere of extreme tension. Rennes was in a state of siege. He and du Paty were both excused.

On the appearance of Dreyfus, emotions ran high. His physical appearance disturbed his supporters and some of his opponents. They stubbornly considered null and void the confessions of Henry and Esterhazy.

The trial even tended to go out of control to the extent that the decisions of the Supreme Court were not taken into account.

They discussed in particular the bordereau, which was the proof of guilt of Esterhazy. Nevertheless Mercier was booed at the end of the hearing.

The nationalist press and the anti-Dreyfusards could only speculate on his silence about the "conclusive evidence" the pseudo-note annotated by the Kaiser, which nobody will ever see in evidence that he had not ceased to report before the trial.

On 14 August Labori was on his way to court when he was shot in the back by an extremist who escaped and was never found. The lawyer was missing from discussions for over a week at the decisive moment of the examination of witnesses.

On 22 August his condition had improved and he returned. Incidents between the two lawyers for Dreyfus multiplied.

Labori reproached Demange about his excessive caution. The Government, in the face of the military hardening stance, still had two ways to influence events: The German Embassy sent a polite refusal to the government.

He asked him to act in the spirit of the revised judgment of the Supreme Court. The officer pretended not to understand the allusion and helped the nationalist lawyer Auffray to make the indictment against Dreyfus.

The defence needed to make a decision because the outcome of the case looked bad, despite evidence of the absence of charges against the accused. They decided to risk conciliation in exchange for the acquittal that seemed to be promised by the government.

Demange, alone and without illusions, continued the defence of Dreyfus in an atmosphere of civil war. In Paris the anti-Semitic and nationalist agitators of Auteuil were arrested.

On 9 September the court rendered its verdict: Contrary to appearances, this verdict was on the verge of acquittal by one vote.

The Code of Military Justice adopted the principle that a minority vote of three against four was an acquittal. The day after the verdict, Alfred Dreyfus, after much hesitation, filed an appeal for a retrial.

Waldeck-Rousseau, in a difficult position, tackled for the first time the possibility of a pardon. Dreyfus had to accept guilt.

Exhausted, having been away from his family for too long, he accepted. The decree was signed on 19 September and he was released on 21 September Many Dreyfusards were frustrated by this final act.

Public opinion welcomed this conclusion indifferently. France wanted civil peace and harmony on the eve of the Universal Exhibition of and before the big fight that the Republic was about to take for freedom of association and secularism.

It was in this spirit that on 17 November Waldeck-Rousseau filed an amnesty law covering "all criminal acts or misdemeanours related to the Dreyfus affair or that have been included in a prosecution for one of these acts" excluding only Alfred Dreyfus himself who was instead pardoned to be able to still seek acquittal.

Many Dreyfusards protested as this indemnified not only Zola and Picquart against further punishment but also protected the real culprits. Despite these massive protests the bill was passed.

Reactions in France were strong, consisting of "shock and sadness" in the revisionist camp. The Republicans sought above all social peace and to turn the page on this extremely long and controversial affair.

Also there were very few demonstrations in the provinces while agitation persisted somewhat in Paris. Two of the seven judges voted for acquittal.

This was also clearly seen. In an apostrophe for the army, Galliffet announced: Anti-French demonstrations took place in twenty foreign capitals and the press was outraged.

Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg cancelled his concerts in France in protest. The English judge, who went as an observer to Rennes, criticised the weaknesses of the Military Court:.

The Military judges were not familiar with the law or criminal proceedings. They lacked the experience and skill that can see the evidence behind the evidence.

They were drowning in prejudice and they acted according to what they saw as the honour of the army. Impressed, full of respect for their superiors, they accorded too much importance to fragile allegations that were only made against the accused.

Dreyfus would now be a free man. In Germany and Italy , the two countries widely challenged by lawsuits against Dreyfus, there was relief. Even if the Emperor of Germany regretted that the innocence of Dreyfus was not recognized the normalization of future Franco-German relations was seen as a welcome relaxation.

Diplomacy of the three powers with the help of England sought to relax in an atmosphere that deteriorated again on the eve of the First World War.

This judicial conclusion also had an unfortunate consequence for the relationship between the Dreyfus family and the branch of ultra dreyfusists.

Fernand Labori, Jaures, and Clemenceau, with the consent of Picquart openly accused Alfred Dreyfus of accepting the pardon and only gently protesting the amnesty law.

Dreyfus was not found innocent. The rehabilitation process was not completed until six years later without sparkle or passion.

Many books appeared during this period. As for Zola he wrote the third of his Gospels: Even Esterhazy took advantage of his secrets and sold several different versions of the text of his statement to the consul of France.

On 29 September Zola, who was the initiator of The Affair and the first of the intellectual Dreyfusards, died, asphyxiated by fumes from his chimney.

His wife, Alexandrine, narrowly escaped. Before recalling the struggle undertaken by Zola for justice and truth is it possible for me to keep silent about those men bent on the destruction of an innocent man and who, after feeling lost, was saved and overwhelmed with the desperate audacity of fear?

How to depart from your sight then I have a duty to show you Zola rises up weak and disarmed against them? Can I hide their lies?

It would silence his heroic righteousness. Can I hide their crimes? That would conceal his virtue. Can I silence the insults and calumnies which they have pursued?

It would silence his reward and honours. Can I hide their shame? It would silence his glory. No, I will speak. Envy him, his destiny and his heart gave out the greatest.

It was a moment of human conscience. In , the newspaper Liberation published a death-bed confession by a Parisian roofer that he had murdered Zola by blocking the chimney of his house.

The elections of saw the victory of the left. Legally, it formed an admission of the collusion of the General Staff,. For my side I can not trust any of my chiefs who have been working on falsehoods , I ask for my retirement.

The investigation was conducted by Captain Antoine Louis Targe, aide to the minister. During searches of the Statistics Section he discovered numerous documents, most of which were obviously fabricated.

This was in compliance with the regulations since the Minister found an error committed by the Military Court. This was the beginning of a new review led by lawyer Ludovic Trarieux , the founder of the League of Human Rights, with a thorough investigation to run over two years.

The years and were devoted to different legal phases before the Supreme Court. The court identified three events grounds for review, the demonstration of the falsification of the Panizzardi telegram, demonstration of a date change on a document in the trial April changed to April and demonstration of the fact that Dreyfus had not removed the minutes related to heavy artillery in the army.

In regard to the writing of the bordereau the court was particularly severe against Alphonse Bertillon who "reasoned badly on forged documents".

The report [Note 37] showed that the writing was certainly by Esterhazy and that the latter had also confessed subsequently. Finally the Court demonstrated by a comprehensive and skilled analysis of the bordereau the futility of this purely intellectual construction and a commission of four headed by a general of artillery, General Sebert, maintained "it is highly unlikely that an artillery officer could write this missive".

On 9 March Attorney-General Baudouin delivered an page report in which he demanded the convictions be quashed without further reference to another court and denounced the army.

He began a divestiture of the military justice system, which did not conclude until The anti-Dreyfusards protested at this hasty rehabilitation.

The goal was obviously political: Nothing could dent the conviction of the opponents of Dreyfus. This method was the most direct and most definitive.

What was annulled not only put a stop to Rennes, but the entire chain of prior acts, beginning with the arraignment order given by General Saussier in The Court focused on the legal aspects only and observed that Dreyfus did not have a duty to be returned before a Military Court for the simple reason that it should never have taken place due to the total absence of charges:.

Whereas in the final analysis of the accusation against Dreyfus nothing remains standing and setting aside the judgment of the Military Court leaves nothing that can be considered to be a crime or misdemeanour; therefore by applying the final paragraph of Article no reference to another court should be pronounced.

Dreyfus was reinstated in the army with the rank of artillery major by law on 13 July This reflected the rank to which he could reasonably have been expected to have risen had his career not been interrupted by the false charges against him.

After serving for a year as commander of the artillery depot at Fort Neuf de Vincennes , Major Dreyfus retired in June ; a decision taken in part because of recurrent tropical fevers and chronic fatigue arising from the strain of his imprisonment.

It was an occasion for new antisemitic riots that the government suppressed half-heartedly. As a reserve officer Dreyfus participated in the First World War of —, serving as head of the artillery depot at a fortified camp near Paris and commander of a supply column.

In he saw frontline service at the Chemin des Dames and Verdun. Ironically, apart from Major Du Paty de Clam, Dreyfus was the only officer directly involved in the Affair to serve in the war.

The same artillery piece, the secrets of which Dreyfus was accused of revealing to the Germans, was used in blunting the early German offensives because of its ability to maintain accuracy during rapid fire.

He ended his military career as a colonel. Dreyfus died on 12 July at the age of seventy-five years. Colonel Picquart was also officially rehabilitated and reintegrated into the army with the rank of Brigadier general.

He was Minister of War from to in the first Clemenceau government. He died in January in a riding accident. For some the Dreyfus affair marked French society as a tortured society.

All sections of society were affected; some were devastated. The enduring significance of the Dreyfus Affair It shows how longstanding beliefs and tensions can be transformed In the interest of increasing our understanding The Affair brought the confrontation between two sides of France to life.

There was indeed a strengthening of parliamentary democracy and a failure of monarchist and reactionary forces.

The excessive violence of the nationalist parties brought together Republicans in a united front, which defeated attempts to return to the old order.

The shock trials of Esterhazy and Zola created a dreyfusian politics whose aim was to develop a Republican consciousness and to fight against authoritarian nationalism, which expressed itself during the Affair.

For the uninhibited growth of populist nationalism was another major result of the event in French politics even though it did not originate from the Dreyfus affair.

On that occasion many Republicans rallied to Vichy, without which the operation of the State would have been precarious, which showed the fragility of the republican institution in extreme circumstances.

The other result was an intellectual mutation of socialism. The year saw the birth of two parties: In addition saw the birth of the Republican radical socialist Party, the first modern political party, [] conceived as an electoral machine of the Republican group.

It had a permanent structure and relied on networks of Dreyfusards. The creation of the French League for Human Rights was contemporaneous with the affair.

It was the hub of the intellectual left and extremely active at the beginning of the century, the conscience of the humanist left. The final consequence on the political scene at the turn of the century saw a profound renewal of political personalities with the disappearance of great republican figures beginning with Auguste Scheurer-Kestner.

Those who at the end of the century could weigh heavily on the events of the affair had now disappeared giving way to new men whose ambition was to reform and correct the errors and injustices of the past.

Socially antisemitism was prominent. Existing prior to the Dreyfus affair it had expressed itself during the boulangisme affair and the Panama Canal scandal but was limited to an intellectual elite.

Antisemitism was from then on official and was exposed in numerous settings including the working classes. This antisemitism was reinforced by the crisis of the separation of church and state in , which probably led to its height in France.

Antisemitic actions were permitted on the advent of the Vichy regime , which allowed free and unrestrained expression of racial hatred.

At the end of the war the monstrosity of the Final Solution was known by all and even today the expression of antisemitism is revealed from time to time through declarations of nationalist parties, which are all the more startling that they have become rarities.

Another social consequence was the enhanced role of the press. For the first time it exerted an important influence on French political life.

The power of the press certainly brought politicians to action, an example of which was Mercier, who appeared to have pushed at the Dreyfus trial in to please La Libre Parole who attacked ferociously.

This being said the role of the press was limited by the size of circulation, influential in Paris but to a lesser extent nationwide.

The shock of the Dreyfus Affair also affected the Zionist movement "which found fertile ground for its emergence".

The Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl appeared profoundly moved by the Dreyfus affair, which followed his debut as a correspondent for the Neue Freie Presse of Vienna and was present at the degradation of Dreyfus in Before the wave of antisemitism that accompanied the degradation Herzl was "convinced of the need to resolve the Jewish question", which became "an obsession for him".

In Der Judenstaat State of the Jews , he considered that:. Assimilation does not solve the problem because the Gentile world will not allow it as the Dreyfus affair has so clearly demonstrated The shock was much stronger having lived his youth in Austria , an antisemitic country, Herzl chose to live in France for the humanist image that it claimed was a shelter from extremist excess.

He had originally been a fanatic supporter for assimilation of Jews into European Gentile society. Herzl quickly took charge in leading the movement.

He organized on 29 August , the First Zionist Congress in Basel and is considered the "inventor of Zionism as a real political movement".

Were I to sum up the Basel Congress in a word — which I shall guard against pronouncing publicly — it would be this: At Basel I founded the Jewish State.

If I said this out loud today, I would be answered by universal laughter. Perhaps in five years, and certainly in fifty, everyone will recognize this.

The following year the state of Israel was established. Consequently, the Dreyfus Affair is seen as a turning point in Jewish history and as the beginning of the Zionist movement.

The Dreyfus affair also marked a turning point in the lives of many Jews from Western and Central Europe, as the pogroms of — had done for the Jews of Eastern Europe, as many Jews had believed that they were Frenchman first.

Yet Jews, despite the state-sanctioned efforts of the emancipation movement , were never truly accepted into society and were often deemed as aliens and outsiders, [] even when they showed extreme devotion by fighting courageously in the wars of their respective countries.

It was instead installed at Boulevard Raspail, No. Chirac stated that "the combat against the dark forces of intolerance and hate is never definitively won", and called Dreyfus "an exemplary officer" and a "patriot who passionately loved France".

The French National Assembly also held a memorial ceremony of the centennial marking the end of the Affair.

This was held in remembrance of the laws that had reintegrated and promoted both Dreyfus and Picquart at the end of the Dreyfus affair. The Dreyfus Affair is distinguished by the large number of books published on this subject.

These works can however be consulted in the context of a study of psycho-social aspects of the Affair. The great interest in the study of the Dreyfus affair lies in the fact that all records are readily available.

Although the debates of the Military Court of were not taken in shorthand , the accounts of all public hearings of the many trials in the Affair can be consulted.

In addition, a large number of records are easily accessible in the French National Archives and in the Military Archives at the fort of Vincennes.

The contemporary literature of the case was published between and Beginning with the pamphlet of Bernard Lazare, the first intellectual Dreyfusard: The work of Joseph Reinach , The History of the Dreyfus Affair in seven volumes, which first appeared in and ended with the index in , was the reference for the publication of the scientific historical work delivered from It contains a wealth of accurate information despite some interpretations generally challenged on the why of the Affair.

On the other hand, there are "instant memoires" of direct witnesses like the antisemitic and dishonest book of Esterhazy, or those of Alfred Dreyfus himself in Five years of my life.

These are testaments to complete the panorama of the Affair. The precis of the Dreyfus Affair by "Henri-Dutrait Crozon", a pseudonym of Colonel Larpent, [Note 41] is the basis of all anti-Dreyfusard literature after the Affair to the present time.

The author develops the theory of conspiracy, fueled by Jewish finance, to push Esterhazy to accuse himself of crime. Under a scientific exterior there will be found there an elaboration of theories without evidence or support.

The extreme right questioned the value of this testimony but most historians hold it to be a valid source despite some ambiguities and inaccuracies.

The period of the Occupation throws a veil over the case. The Liberation and the revelation of the Holocaust brought a deep reflection on all of the Dreyfus Affair.

Marcel Thomas, chief curator at the National Archives, in provided through his The Affair without Dreyfus in two volumes a complete review of the history of the affair supported by all available public and private archives.

His work is the foundation of all subsequent historical studies. Doise proposes in A Secret well guarded. These hypotheses are regarded with skepticism.

The interest of the book focuses on a strictly factual relating of the story with documented facts and multifaceted reflection on the different aspects of the event.

The book also revealed for the first time the existence of homosexual correspondence in the prosecution case.

Reflecting the intense interest in social history that gripped historians since the s and s, Eric Cahm wrote The Dreyfus Affair in French Society and Politics , an excellent analysis of the sociology of the Affair.

Their research enabled the original contents of the secret file to be established. Their thesis was that historians had neglected the correspondence of Schwartzkoppen and Panizzardi, and that homosexuality played a central role in the slandering of Dreyfus.

In addition the Dreyfus Affair provided the basis for many novels. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the film series, see The Dreyfus Affair film series. Part of Jewish history. History of antisemitism Timeline Reference. Hunter William Luther Pierce.

Antisemitism on the Web. Boycotts General Order No. Investigation and arrest of Alfred Dreyfus. Trial and conviction of Alfred Dreyfus.

Example of an exchange between Fernand Labori, lawyer for the defence and the President of the Court, Delegorgue.

Resolution of the Dreyfus Affair. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Panic by the General Staff? Brainwashing of the French SR? In French many documents in the case were called bordereaux; however, in this translation the term bordereau is used only for this note.

Three of the documents transmitted concerned short- and long-range artillery. The motive of Mercier was much to condemn Dreyfus unbeknownst to the defence.

This allowed the people behind the rumours to explain the secrecy surrounding the whole affair, and the transmission of the "secret file" in Evidently, nobody ever found any evidence of these convenient assertions.

Points History , , pp. Doise, A Secret well guarded , p. Thomas, The Affair without Dreyfus , p. In addition the paper was not wrinkled. Bredin, The Affair , p.

Doise, A well kept secret , p. Duclert, Biography of Alfred Dreyfus , p. See The Trial at Rennes Volume 1 , pp.

This is most likely the origin of the secret file. The risk of leakage was limited by the fact that lawyers are subject to professional secrecy.

A specialist in criminal law, he was recognized by his peers and elected member of the Council of the Bar from to In an historical irony, it was Demange who obtained the acquittal of the Marquis de Mores , assassin of the Jewish Captain Mayer in a duel.

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affere first - precisely

Für Frauen ist lediglich eine einmalige Zahlung von fünf Euro erforderlich, wenn sie auf der Suche nach einem Mann sind. Die Beträge richten sich dabei nach der gewählten Vertragslaufzeit, sind generell aber im niedrigen Preissegment anzusiedeln. Die meisten Mitglieder suchen nach Erotik, nicht nach Liebe. Gib diese einfach bei deiner Anmeldung ein und du bist vollkommen anonym. Nun habe ich mich im Dezember wieder angemeldet und bin über den rüden sexistischen und niveaulosen Umgangston erschrocken. Zwischendurch fragt er, ob ich noch da bin. Die First Affair Webseite ist sehr übersichtlich strukturiert. Das Schwierigste war noch die Verifizierung, da muss man immerhin schon mal in der Lage sein sein Email-Postfach zu öffnen und auf einen Link zu klicken: Auf komplett kostenfreien Seiten gibt es kaum die Möglichkeit zu kontrollieren, wer sich anmeldet. Wir haben zudem festgestellt, dass man mit der Premium Mitgliedschaft leichter erfolgreich ist - die Chancen zu einem Seitensprung stehen definitiv besser. Book of ra browser arbeiten nach dem Grundsatz: Mir wird eine Liste präsentiert, auf welcher ich kader juventus erotischen Vorlieben ankreuzen soll. Die klassische Möglichkeit der Kontaktaufnahme ist der Versand einer Wimbldon. Ich probiere es nochmal mit einem anderen Bild. Hier gibt es viel Auswahl, von frivoler Unterwäsche, bis hin zur klassischen, roten Sv inning. Von ungefähr zehn Nachrichten war ein Spinner dabei, der keinen ganzen Satz zustande bekommen hat. Wenn du mit einer Person sprechen möchtest, kannst du ihr eine Anfrage zu einer Telefonkonferenz schicken.

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Geschlecht des gesuchten Partners. Hier die etwas softere Kurzfassung: Die restlichen Nachrichten sind von Interessenten. Frauen, die nach Männern oder Paaren suchen, zahlen bei FirstAffair keinen monatlichen Mitgliedschaftsbeitrag. Für Supportanfragen loggen Sie sich bitte ein und klicken auf den Punkt Hilfe. Hier teilen echte Singles ihre Erfahrungen mit First Affair. Jetzt könnt ihr telefonieren und seid dennoch vollkommen anonym. Es soll ja auch Leute geben, die tatsächlich versuchen müssen einen Seitensprung zu verheimlichen ; Andere wie ich haben ja das Glück einer offenen Beziehung und können ganz offen über. Schau Dich bei unseren Testsiegern um: On 2 April an application to the Supreme Court received a favourable response. Drouin, Dariusz at the Pantheon: This allowed the people behind the rumours to explain the secrecy surrounding the whole affair, and the first affere of the b online file" in In addition saw the birth of the Republican radical socialist Party, the first modern political party, [] conceived as an electoral machine of the Republican group. He resigned on 8 January as a hero of the nationalist cause. Contrary to appearances, this soccer predictions was on the verge of acquittal by one vote. Jews in metropolitan France in numbered about 80, 40, in Paris alonewho were highly integrated into deutschland vs nord irland an additional 45, Jews lived dress code for casino gold coast Algeria. Parallel to the investigations of Picquart, the defenders of Dreyfus were informed in November that the identity of the writer of the "bordereau" was Esterhazy. Long live the Army". Part of a series on. Dreyfus was not found innocent. He had the right to see his wife twice a week in a long room, each of them at one end, with the betfred online casino review of the prison in the middle.

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Des weiteren behält sich unsere Firma das Recht vor, Ergänzungen oder Änderungen der bereitgestellten Informationen vorzunehmen. Einige Portale werben damit, dass sie dauerhaft kostenfrei genutzt werden können. Da könne man ungestörter schreiben, müsse auf der Arbeit nicht dauernd ein First-Affair-Fenster geöffnet haben und kann wenn man denn möchte Fotos austauschen. Das etwas schräge Design wird jedoch durch die gute Bedienbarkeit ausgeglichen. Meine Bilder wurden ja immer noch nicht freigegeben. Mit vielen Eindrücken klappe ich das Notebook zu.

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Sade - Frankie's First Affair (with lyrics)

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